Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell

Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell – Book Review

Summary

I review Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell, his sixth published book and a commercial failure. An historically important account of the Spanish Civil War and featuring the seeds of some themes which were developed on in 1984. 

The Spanish Civil War

Eric Arthur Blair (George Orwell) volunteered to fight in the Spanish Civil War on the side of the Republicans. The Republicans were made up of left leaning groups such as socialists, communists and anarchists. They were at war against the Nationalists, a more conservative right leaning group which was ultimately led by Franco.

The above description of the war sounds rather straightforward. However, the reality of the war was much more complex. Amongst the many varied groups fighting on the side of the Republicans were many differences of political opinions. As a result there was a large amount of fighting between them. The only thing that they seemingly could all agree on was their opposition to Franco and the Nationalists.

Reader feel free to skip!

Orwell acknowledges in the book that the political background to the war is a rather dry topic. Consequently he invites the reader to feel free to skip a couple of the chapters where he explains this. I must admit that with all the various acronyms, it is rather difficult to follow. The couple of chapters dedicated to this clearly convey the confusion that must have existed. People fighting on the same side ultimately began fighting against each other. The group that Orwell joined to fight with was the POUM. The POUM were actually outlawed as the war progressed. POUM soldiers returning from the front were arrested or even worse shot. They were shot for being a member of a political group that was now illegal.

Trench Warfare

Orwell is very readable and brings alive what could have been a very dry subject. Trench warfare is described in vivid detail. As you read the book you feel that you experience the trenches of the Spanish Civil War.

Interestingly there is a complete lack of action in the trenches. Soldiers were ill equipped with a lack of guns and bombs. Equipment that was provided to soldiers was often dangerous and very old. Next to no training was provided to the soldiers. As a result a very hopeless picture is painted.

The trenches were too far apart for any real fighting to take place. Soldiers were wounded mostly be stray bullets or a lucky shot landing. Orwell himself was shot in the trenches. His description of this is very powerful and he also discusses the mental effects that this had on him.

Rumble on La Rambla

La Rambla is the lovely main street that runs through the city of Barcelona. It is a wide avenue with beautiful old buildings, flowers sellers and newsagents. Upon arriving in Barcelona, Orwell finds a city owned and run by the people. A city where tipping is outlawed and everyone is a comrade.

Orwell describes how La Rambla is transformed into a battle ground. As a result of the fighting amongst the republican groups, street fighting broke out. Orwell details his experience of this and also the many differences in the reported versions.

La Rambla Barcelona, scene of street fighting in Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell
La Rambla – Barcelona

A very understanding Mrs Blair

As you read this book, Orwell happens to mention that his wife is with him! He occasionally mentions that she is in a hotel in Barcelona whilst he is at the front fighting the forces of Franco! Mrs Blair’s account of the whole experience would have been very interesting too. As the book draws to a close, we see Mr and Mrs Blair trying to escape Spain. Orwell is wanted by the police for having been a member of a now outlawed political party. It is quite clear how lucky they were to escape and that Orwell lived to write his future masterpieces.

The Truth is what we say it is – origins of 1984

In Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell, the writer states from the outset that he is describing his personal experiences of the Spanish Civil War. He makes this clear because his account differs to some of the widely accepted accounts or facts of the war.

Orwell discusses how every event that took place was subject to propaganda and spin. We often hear the phrase that the victor of a war writes the history. In this situation we become aware of how printed propaganda just serves to confuse historians. Just because something is written down does not make it true. The irony of this is not lost on Orwell as he is writing his own version of events. His version of events that will be flavoured with his own political opinion and leanings.

Let us remember that we are also talking about propaganda amongst the forces fighting Franco. During the street fighting in Barcelona amongst the Republican forces there were many differing accounts of events. For each event that took place there was at least the Government’s official version, the anarchist version and the Communist version.

Orwell reflects on the in-fighting and war in general;

Everyone believes in the atrocities of the enemy and disbelieves in those of his own side, without ever bothering to examine the evidence.

Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell

As the war progressed, Orwell states that it became evident that some form of dictatorship would result. He reflects on the political leaders who he saw as having power to say that 2 + 2 = 5 and for it to be held as true. These themes of propaganda and control of truth are explored and developed in 1984.

La Sagrada Familia

Barcelona is a beautiful city and has wonderful architecture. La Sagrada Familia, Barcelona’s cathedral, is a huge tourist draw. The cathedral is completely unique and is unlike any other in the world. The way it is constructed allows for a beautiful and magical dance of colours inside from its stained glassed windows. Orwell describes it as “one of the most hideous buildings in the world.” Sorry Eric but I must disagree with you there!

La Sagrada Familia described as hideous in Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell
La Sagrada Familia interior

In Summary

Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell is an interesting book from a number of perspectives. It is a first hand experience of trench warfare in the Spanish Civil war and also of the Barcelona street fighting.

The book also explores themes that Orwell developed later in 1984. Themes of totalitarianism and government controlled rewriting of history.

I knew very little about the Spanish Civil War before reading this book. As a result this is what attracted me to the book. Following the yogic concept of self-study, svadhyaya, I set out to learn!

Find out more about George Orwell here: https://www.orwellfoundation.com/the-orwell-foundation/about/about-george-orwell/

Eric Arthur Blair aka George Orwell

Check out our other book reviews here: https://yogasmiths.org/category/book-review/

British Wheel of Yoga Diploma course certificates

Our British Wheel of Yoga Diploma Course Certificates arrived earlier this year. We finished the training last year but the certificates take a little while to be issued. But they are certainly worth waiting for!

British Wheel of Yoga Diploma certificates
Paul & Steve modelling their Diploma certificates!

The British Wheel of Yoga Diploma in teaching yoga is a Level 4 diploma. Learning hours on the course are a minimum of 500 hours. It comprises eight units as follows;

  1. Applied Anatomy and Physiology and the Teaching of Asana
  2. Yoga Breathing Practices and Relaxation
  3. Planning for Teaching and the Responsibilities of a Yoga Teacher
  4. Planning and Delivering a Yoga Course
  5. Teaching Asana: Observation, Adjustment and Protection of Vulnerable Areas of the Body
  6. Hatha Yoga and Pranayama
  7. The Teaching and Philosophy of Meditation
  8. Progression in Yoga

As a result of the above units you get a fantastic grounding in all things yoga. The British Wheel of Yoga qualifications actually prepare you to teach yoga.

OFQUAL regulated

OFQUAL regulated qualification

In the corner of our British Wheel of Yoga Diploma certificates is the OFQUAL logo. OFQUAL is the Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation and regulates qualifications, examinations and assessments in England. (Here is their website: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ofqual ) This means that the British Wheel of Yoga course must meet certain regulatory framework requirements. It also means that every course has a verifier who check the standard of the training and the written work.

The world of Yoga teacher training is unregulated and as such the quality of trainings vary massively. This varies from short courses below 200 hours and even some correspondence courses. The industry standard is 200 hours which is often crammed into a month long period via a trip to an exotic location. As a former learning and development professional I know that cramming intense learning into such a short period of time is not good practice. Can you really learn a profession in one month? With the British Wheel of Yoga you are getting an OFQUAL regulated 500 hour training course. This really is a reassuring mark of quality.

When searching out Yoga Teacher training courses, you are preparing to make a significant financial investment in your training. As a result make sure you do some due diligence to avoid being disappointed. The British Wheel of Yoga offer an unrivalled quality of teacher training as one would expect of the Governing Body for Yoga in the UK. You can check out their website here: https://www.bwy.org.uk/

We wrote a previous blog about our journey on the British Wheel of Yoga Diploma which you can find here: https://yogasmiths.org/2019/09/23/the-british-wheel-of-yoga-diploma-journey/

British Wheel of Yoga Diploma certificates
Paul and Steve with their British Wheel of Yoga Diploma certificates

International Women’s Day 2020 – Eileen Ash 108 year old yogi!

International Women’s Day 2020 (March 8) is a global day celebrating the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women. The day also marks a call to action for accelerating women’s equality.

International Women’s Day (IWD) has occurred for well over a century, with the first IWD gathering in 1911 supported by over a million people. Today, IWD belongs to all groups collectively everywhere. IWD is not country, group or organisation specific.

You can find out more about International Women’s Day at the day’s website here: https://www.internationalwomensday.com/

Meet 108 year old Eileen Ash!

On this day I wanted to share with you details of a very inspirational lady. I recently became aware of Eileen Ash aged 108. She attends a regular weekly yoga class near her home in Norwich.

International Women's Day 2020 Eileen Ash Norwich Yoga
Eileen Ash at her weekly Yoga class, picture from the Eastern Daily Press website, taken by Simon Finlay

I have read features about her at age 104 and 105 detailing her driving her little yellow mini to yoga each week. ( https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-norfolk-37775585 )

She has had a very interesting life, having been a former English Test cricketer between the years of 1937 and 1949. In fact she is believed to be the oldest living international cricketer.

Eileen also worked in the civil service. She worked for MI6 during the war hunting spies. Eileen continued to wrk for them for 11 years.

A short video celebrating Eileen’s 105th birthday from the Norfolk Now youtube channel

Here is a feature from when she turned 107. She says here that “liking people” and “breathing” are the keys to a long life! https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/uk-england-norfolk-46103434/eileen-ash-the-secret-to-living-to-107-is-liking-people

As I write this, Eileen is 108 years old and continues to attend her weekly yoga class. She attributes her longevity to 2 glasses of red wine a day, yoga and living in Norwich! On International Women’s Day 2020 cheers Eileen!

Read our blog on 101 year old Yoga Teacher Tao Porchon-Lynch here: https://yogasmiths.org/2020/02/28/worlds-oldest-yoga-teacher-passes-away-at-101/

We teach 2 regular weekly chair based Gentle Years Yoga© Classes at Hoylake Parade Community Centre on a Friday morning. Check out our classes page for more information: https://yogasmiths.org/classes/

Slow Cooker Vegan Chilli Recipe

vegan chilli slow cooker, easy to make

Our Slow Cooker Vegan chilli recipe…. so simple to make… Winter feels like it is still upon us and there is nothing like a tasty chilli to warm you up.

Do you have any favourite vegan recipes that you have created? Email it over to see if it makes our website to share with friends in our yoga community.

Ingredients;

ingredients for slow cooker vegan chilli recipe

2 large brown onions (peeled and chopped)

2 celery sticks (sliced)

2 peppers, 1 red, 1 green (sliced)

250g carrots (peeled and diced)

1 large aubergine (cubed)

3 cloves of garlic (peeled and crushed) 

1 tsp group cumin

1 tsp chilli powder

2 tsp paprika

2 tsp soy sauce

1 tsp dried mixed herbs

2 tins of chopped tomatoes 400g each can

1 tin of kidney beans 400g

1 tin of chickpeas 400g

1 tin of cannellini beans 400g

Salt & pepper to season

Instructions for our Slow Cooker Vegan Chilli Recipe

Turn the slow cooker on and put inside the onions, celery, peppers, garlic, carrots, aubergine.

slow cooker vegan chilli recipe

Add the cumin, paprika, chilli powder and dried herbs.

Pour in the 2 tins of chopped tomatoes and the soy sauce.

Season with salt and pepper to taste.

Stir well and cook on medium setting for 4 hours.

Drain the kidney, cannellini beans and chickpeas and add to the chilli. Stir well and cook for 1 more hour.  

We like to serve with brown rice or vegan tortillas wraps.

Tip, if you’ve cooked this while at work and just want to tuck right in, the beans can be heated up quicker following the cooking instructions on the can and then mixed into the chilli.

Let us know if you enjoyed our Slow Cooker Vegan Chilli recipe

Slow cooker vegan chilli recipe
Yum…!

Check out the other recipes listed on our website at https://yogasmiths.org/category/vegan-recipes/

This is the slow cooker that we have: https://www.morphyrichards.co.uk/shop-now/slow-cookers/460014-Red-Sear-and-Stew-Slow-Cooker.html

World Book Day 2020

World Book Day 2020 – Svadhyaya (self-study)

Today is World Book Day 2020 and we are going to look at how it links with the 8 limbs of yoga.

In the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali one of the 8 limbs of Yoga are the Niyama (limb number 2). These are five virtuous behaviours that Patanjali recommends that we cultivate in ourselves. The 4th Niyama is Svadhyaya. This translates as self-study. How does this fit in with World Book Day 2020?

There are two elements to this idea of self-study. There is the study of the self and there is self directed study. As today is World Book Day I am going to discuss the later.

Svadhyaya as self-directed study is the reading of books that will enrich our lives. Books that allow us to develop in a positive way. This is very much in line with what we would call “life-long learning’.

It is the study and reading of texts / films or documentaries that will enrich our lives. Material that will result in increase our knowledge of ourselves. Modern research has shown that continuing to learn new things late into life can in some cases help to fend off dementia and cognitive decline.

In his book Samadhi, Gregor Maehle interprets Svadhyaya as prioritising the desire to answer the following questions;

  • Who are we?
  • What is our true identity?
  • What is the purpose of our life?

Applying svadhyaya to life

Svadhyaya has quite a life changing implication here around our consumption of such things as newspapers and television. Are we watching television programmes that inspire us and enrich our lives? Or do we use television as “chewing gum for the eyes”? Are we reading newspapers that educate us? Or do they instil us with fear of the world? Svadhyaya is mindful consumption of television and media. Being aware of how such things make you feel.

Over the years I have reduced my consumption of television dramatically. As a result only choosing to occasionally watch documentaries and films. This has had a positive effect for me, I became aware that often certain television programmes left me feeling annoyed, frustrated or down. Removing this source of negativity can have an uplifting effect on your general mood. This all comes down to mindfulness and having a greater awareness of how such things make you feel. I have found more time to read books and to undertake study. I have always found books to be a rich source of inspiration not just philosophical books or yoga books but also biographies. Biographies can give us a good insight into other peoples experience of life, this can help us foster feelings of empathy and compassion allowing us to put ourselves in the place of the author.

My own love of books and reading

I have always enjoyed reading and this is something that my parents encouraged in me as a little boy. Growing up we didn’t have a lot of money but my parents always bought me a new book when I had read my current one. As a result this was encouragement to read! Mum would take me down to Chapter One bookshop in West Kirby and I would pick a Willard Price adventure book. These books transported me to exotic lands and exciting adventures and gave me a desire to travel when I was older.

I also loved Enid Blyton. Newton Post Office had a selection of children books and I would love looking at the selection of Famous Five titles. I read some of the Secret Seven books but my favourites were the Famous Five. The escapades of the five and Timmy the dog had me enthralled. Their adventures on Kirin Island felt almost possible for me with Hilbre Island sitting in the estuary. I remember my Dad telling me that smugglers used to use Hilbre Island and this made it all the more exciting and real!

When I was 7 years old we got a lovely little dog called Sandy and she was my “Timmy the dog” from the Famous Five stories. We would have lots of adventures in the fields around Newton, finding dens and watching foxes, rabbits and hares. This sense of exploration and interest in life and nature came directly from the books that I read.

This interest in books and knowledge stayed with me into adulthood and is a continuing gift that my parents gave to me by providing me with books as a child and by taking me for walks in nature.

World Book Day 2020

Today is World Book Day, Thursday 5th March 2020. The impact that reading and access to books can have on a child and the subsequent adult is great. I feel that encouraging reading is as important as ever in this age of modern technology. The purpose and aims of world book day from their website are below;

World Book Day is a registered charity on a mission to give every child and young person a book of their own. It’s also a celebration of authors, illustrators, books and (most importantly) it’s a celebration of reading. In fact, it’s the biggest celebration of its kind, designated by UNESCO as a worldwide celebration of books and reading, and marked in over 100 countries all over the world.


This is the 23rd year there’s been a World Book Day, and on 5th March 2020, children of all ages will come together to appreciate reading. Very loudly and very happily. The main aim of World Book Day in the UK and Ireland is to encourage children to explore the pleasures of books and reading by providing them with the opportunity to have a book of their own. That’s why we will be sending schools (including those nurseries and secondary schools that have specially registered to participate), packs of Book Tokens and age-ranged World Book Day Resource Packs (age-ranged into Nursery/Pre-School, Primary and Secondary) full of ideas and activities, display material and more information about how to get involved in World Book Day.

From http://www.worldbookday.com

Support World Book Day in any way that you can, it is a fantastic initiative!

Here is a link to the World Book Day website where there are lots of great resources; https://www.worldbookday.com

Check out our Book Review blogs at : https://yogasmiths.org/category/book-review/